hello everyone. kendall here. and welcome to theendless hangout. i'm here with dr.nicholas dodman, who is the professor at tuftsuniversity, veterinarian, and chief scientificofficer at dog tv. hey, thank you for coming. hey, my pleasure. good to see you.
good to see you, too. ok so hold on one second. ok, so today we are goingto have also-- we're also going to be talkingto you about dogs. everyone has questionsfor dogs [inaudible]. we have some people comingin live that are also going to be askingyou questions. and also, we have a goody bag. and at the end ofthe discussion,
we're going to behaving a winner, who's going to win this goody bag. and in here we havea lot of things. from frisbees, we have balls,we have this throwing thing which a lot of dogsabsolutely love. so stick around. and later in theshow, we're going to be announcing the winner. and yeah, so here it is.
you can win this and more. ok, so first offwe're going to be talking to paige from houston. and she has a couplequestions for you. so paige, hello. hi, how are you? nice to meet you. so my first question is thata breeder actually told me that muts are not actuallyany healthier than pure breed
and that that's acommon misconception. and that people whoadopt muts thinking that they're going tobe healthier than pure-- it's not actually true. and this was comingfrom a breeder, so i wasn't sure if thatwas a little biased, or what the thought processbehind health concerns are with pure breeds and muts. do you have anythoughts on that?
yeah, she's wrong, i'm afraid. but in fact, manyof the pure breeds have specific, pure bredissues-- not meaning to pick on, for example,german shepherds with their hip dysplasia, orcavalier king charles with a horrible conditioncalled syringomyelia, where they have fluid-filledspaces in their brain. their brain's too bigfor their brain case. or seizures in certainbreeds, and other very subtle
conditions-- there's awhole bunch of things. each pedigree seems to haveits own particular issues-- atopy, which is massiveallergies in the west highland white. and if you have a real truemix, these genetic glitches even out, and they are,generally speaking, much healthier. but having said that,if you say a mix is just a mix of two breeds,and you have two breeds
that both have problems, thatfirst generation could have conditions affectingeither of the pure breeds. so if you're a firstgeneration cross, if you're agoldendoodle, you could have the problems of thegolden with the problems of the poodle. so a poodle has seizures. and actually, golden'scan have seizures, too, and have hip dysplasiaand hypothyroidism.
and you could end up witha mixture of all of them. but if you've got areal mixed breed, who's like, mixed and mixedand mixed so you really can't tell what'sin him-- if you did that genetic test, at thewisdom panel, and found out he's got about 16 differentrelatives, that dog probably would have a very low chance ofhaving any serious conditions. so the breeder is wrong. thank you.
good to know. great. they're not allwrong, all the time. no, thank you so much. also, the next questionwe have is actually a user-submitted question. and it's from kanimi. and she asks, why dodogs seem so interested in their own waste,especially feces,
to the point of rollingaround in it or eating it? so what do you have tosay to that, eating feces? well first of all, all ofit is perfectly natural. so one normal behaviorof the puppy's mum, otherwise known as thebitch, is that she-- oops, there's a bad word-- no, this is purely scientific. purely scientific--but her job is to clean up the wastefrom her puppies.
and in fact, theydon't even know how to urinate and defecateon their own to start with, so she has to lick themin the perianal area. and then when they produce,to keep the nest clean, she has to remove it. and often times, thatis by eating feces. though, if you think aboutit, you're a little puppy-- you grow up and if you'relearning any lessons from your mummy, it'sthat eating poop is good.
so a lot of them will eat poop. it's a perfectlynatural behavior. it's not unhealthful. and it usually disappears bythe time they're one-year-old. it might persist,sometimes, in some others. but then the other thing--rolling in disgusting stuff-- that's because they'recovering themselves in the scent of another animal. and oftentimesthere's a dead thing.
kind of like a [inaudible]. mine will roll in dead things. and yeah, they come backhome smelling to high heaven. and then actually,they're very proud. and they've shown eachother, see what i found. they brought theodor back with them. it's a natural behavior. it could be somethingof a disguise. or it could besomething of a boast.
so it's kind of like tellingtheir story about where they were, as if--look what i found, you guys want to checkit out kind of thing. yeah, when youthink about it, dogs live in an olfactory world. us humans-- we have 12million smell receptors. and they say that dogshave close to a billion. and a scent hound mayhave four billion. 12 million to 4billion-- they actually
have noses that are moresensitive than the most sensitive scientific apparatus. so they live in aworld of odors that we can only barely imagine. and to bring an odor backand communicate that way, or to disguise an odor, this isthem doing what they're doing. in a way, you couldalso think that the odor be like a harry potterinvisibility cape. oh, so it also masksthem from, say,
enemies or other [inaudible]. masking thing, and itcould be a boasting thing, like see where i've been. see what i found. we don't know. but bottom line is, both thosebehaviors are quite natural, as is paying attention tothings that smell, to us, pretty disgusting, like horse hoofpairings, or horse pucky. woops, there's another bad word.
these sort of things arepretty natural for a dog to do. so there's nothing wrong. sometimes you can havetoo much of a good thing. and people tryand dissuade them. so they do silly things likegiving the dog breath mints to eat or putting tabasco sauceon stool, which really doesn't work, and i think mexican dogsfind it a lot tastier that way. they might prefer thetabasco sauce on the stool. they might prefer it that way.
what we do for thatcondition actually, is if you don't like the dogeating its own poop, which they sometimes do, is we just putthem on a high fiber ration. and then it changesthe constituency and it's more like eatingdry oats than something more pureed and tasty. ok, well next we actuallyhave arlie from walnut creek. and she has a question for you. arlie, are you there?
i'm here. hey, arlie. hi. hi, mr dodman. i'm great. how are you? i'm good. i think i know where you live. oh yeah?
you've got a rescueleague there, right? i'm pretty sure we do, yeah. yeah, i've been there andtalked at that place, yeah. yeah, yeah. tony la russa. what was that? tony la russa animal rescueleague in walnut something in california. yeah, probably inwalnut creek, yeah.
we've got a big animal rescuefollowing here, i guess. i guess so. yeah, i have a question aboutlightning and thunderstorms. we've had a fewrecently over here. and my dog gets really upset. and i was wondering if youhad any tips to calm him down. something like that? yeah, i've got a couple. one thing-- we'vedone a study on here
at the veterinary school isactually two of the capes that you can use. we did a study on somethingcalled the thundershirt-- no, the anxiety wrap. thundershirt and anxietywrap work in a similar way, by pressure. and there was a 50% improvement,or reduction of the signs. [interposing voices] --they worked.
we did another study with acape called the storm defender. and that worked even better. it was like 70%improvement in signs. and we even had a placebo capethat was a sort of dummy cape. and the dogs with the stormdefender-- which is anti static. it's got a silver lining. and it's usually akind of red magenta. they're kind of cool.
they look like a superman cape. i put one on as soon as igot one and ran up and down the corridor pretending. but those things do work. other thing is you canprovide a safe place. so if you imagine ifyou're in the midwest and there's a tornadocoming through, a lot people havea tornado bunker. and you go into aplace downstairs,
where there's smallwindows or no windows. you've got music. you've got tv. you've got things to do, thingsto chew, things to drink. you just go down there,batten down the hatches. you wait for the storm to pass. we try and find a placelike that in people's homes. and we teach the dog togo there during the storm. but the last thing, andthis is true unfortunately,
some dogs who haveit very severely-- they will need medicationto help them through. and there's two types. one of them is a sortof background medicine along the lines of prozac. and the otherone's something you use in a more immediate way,just when there's a storm. you can use a sortof an anti fear type drug, which is called clonodine.
so with the combination,we can usually make some seriousprogress with them and prevent them frombeing so bent out of shape. because it is a veryserious problem. and some drugs withthat will actually-- if there's a stormwhen they're alone, and they don't know where to go,and they don't know what to do, and their mummy'snot there, they will actually leapout of a window.
so somebody tellsme, my dog jumped out of a third floor window. he was a jumper. my next word is, does hehave thunderstorm phobia? because that's almost always thenext word out of their mouth. oh my god. [inaudible]. so the static gets to them? yeah, we think so. because the thingis i had three dogs
in a row that taught me this. they were all german shepherds. and they all weighed inthe 70 to 90 pound range. and all three of them,during the storm, jumped into the sink. and then the nextone i had i said, does your dog jump in the sink? they said no, hegoes in the bath. and the next one-- does hego in the sink or the bath?
he said no, he goes inthe shower pedestal. and then one stood inthe kids' paddling pool, up to his ankles in water. and finally, the penny dropped. all those places areelectrical grounds, where if you stand onthem, you would discharge static electricityfrom your body. and if you are wanderingaround with a big fur coat on, the equivalentof an angora sweater,
and you have insulatingpads on the bottom, you will get static. and people do get shocks offtheir dogs during storms. and i had one just this week. they said their dog's hair juststood up all fuzz with static. and they got shocks off him. if you're charged, likethe dog, and you already don't like the noise, andthen you touch something like a fire screenwith your nose,
you're going havea zinger, right through a sensitivepart of your face. and you're going toremember that storm forever, which is why this particularphobia usually comes down in serious shape betweenthe ages of five and nine. so this protectiveblanket, and to make sure they have anice place to stay. and also, just something to calmthem down would be wonderful. thank you, arlie,for your question.
so next, we have anotheruser-submitted question. it's from ericmurray, from france. and he asks, my german shepherdchases shadows on the ground. and no matter what we do,we can't get her to stop. the strange thing is thatshe not only chases shadows, she leaps andpounces at them, as if she were tryingto kill them-- never her own shadow, but onlythe shadows of people. it usually happens when we haveguests over, or at parties.
do you have any insight on this? so my dog does the same thing. so what do you haveto say to that? well, that's a condition thati have studied, quite a lot. and in fact, we have astudy going on right now where we're lookingfor participants. i think we have allof the control dogs-- normal german shepherds. and remember-- shepherd--herding breeds, perhaps
like yours. and they all havevery high prey drive, because that's where herdingcomes from, is high prey drive. and if they're all dressedup and no place to go, they will jump at something thatactually isn't the real target. so it isn't a sheep oranything else to be herded. rottweilers will do it, too,because that's a herding breed. they used to herdcattle in the old days. they've got this desire tochase, this predatory instinct,
that must be dissipated. and if it doesn'thave a normal outlet-- if they don't have enoughexercise, if they don't have gainful employment, things likefly ball or chasing things, lure coursing,whatever, and life is kind of dull,especially if they are geneticallypredisposed, which is what our study's about-- theywill erupt into this behavior. you could arguethat some of them
may have it, at least augmented,as an attention-seeking behavior. so you can make a neutralsound and exit stage left. some of them you could arguehave an obsessive compulsive disorder, whichis a behavior that is performed ritualistically,over and over again, and appears to serveno useful function, usually stimulated a littlebit by activity and energy in the room.
[inaudible] it couldhave a seizure base, too. so just giving themsomething to do, something to be stimulatedby, because that's just how they'rereleasing their energy, because they needsomething to chase. you've got it. so the two things-- if theyhave obsessive compulsive, which is probably mostveterinary behaviorists, like myself, would say it's anobsessive compulsive disorder
if it's beyond a certainfrequency of expression. if you've got an ocdgoing on, in people you've got cognitivetherapy and drug therapy. in dogs you have environmentalenrichment and drug therapy. and sometimes it's serious. you do need to useanti-obsessional medication. but you can tryadjusting the environment and providing more appropriateoutlets for the behavior. but on its own that oftenwill not be 100% effective.
yeah, my dog has the same issue. he chases shadows. and i'll definitely trythat out [inaudible]. yeah, and sometimes theypounce and they bounce. another breed that doesit, which we're also studying genetically,is the border collie. and they do the same thing. it's another herding breed. and they jump and they pounce.
and i had one that pouncedand banged his nose on the ground, on theground, on the ground. but his nose was bleeding. it's like he boxedhimself in the nose. because he really thinkssomething's there. so it's hard [inaudible] hurtthemselves from something that they can prevent. but our next question, fromarmy girl 1991-- and she asks, i just adopteda dog, and i'm
pretty sure he was abused,because he reacts very badly to any kind of discipline. if we just give him a smallfussing, he thinks it's a game. if we raise our voice to tryto give him a little pat, he freaks out andcowers, and almost pees himself from fright. how can i discipline him? so how do you discipline adog who's been abused before? simple answer-- you don't.
he's had very badexperiences in the past. he's extremely shy. and he really doesn'tneed any more of the same. so he doesn't need disciplining. and actually, the basisof all modern training is you reward thebehaviors that you want. and you ignore thebehaviors you don't want. because the opposite ofreward is not punishment. it's no reward.
and so physicalpunishment actually is really detrimental to thedogs, and shouldn't be done. and raising voicesis ridiculous. i think it wascolonel potter in mash said to hawkeye pierce--it doesn't matter how loud you showat the koreans. they will not understandwhat you're saying. so is it the samething for dogs? they just don't understand whatwe're yelling at the about,
because they don't knowwhat to do, in a way. they don't know what to do. so you need to teachthem and show them. you don't need-- if you hada class full of children who had been throughbad experiences, and yelling and hittingand punishing discipline is not going toreally help them. it's better to, beforeyou go into that class, read a chapter from, or averse from, the desiderata.
and just be really cool, andspeak quietly, and be kind, and reward any behaviorsthat look like confidence. and there's always-- you canuse negative punishment-- that is, withholding. you tell him to do something. and if he doesn't doit then he doesn't get the rewardthat was on offer. and that's acceptable. but nothing physical.
no loud voices. and i actually have adog who was abused, too, who was frightened of a belt. if i took my belt off atnight, he would cower. so i didn't take itoff in front of him. if you shook a garbagebag, he would cower, because he'd been hit inconnection with robbing the trash, i imagine. and there were afew other things.
but just by not doing it, he'snow gained his confidence. and he's a pretty normal dog. so just rewarding goodbehavior is basically one of the main things. because-- there's a whole schoolof training now. and it's calledpositive training. but in fact, there's somepeople who still use punishment. and they call themselvespositive trainers,
because there's an element ofpositive about what they do. but they're still usingnegative, punishment-based techniques. so some trainers, todistinguish themselves, call themselves totalpositive trends. and i would refer-- if shewanted to train that dog, i would refer her to a groupcalled the association of pet dog trainers, whofor the most part-- the essence of that groupis that they are benign.
and they train with kindness andby teaching the dog what to do. ok, no, very helpful. thank you so much. i'll give you an example. if a dog's barking and youdon't want him to bark, you've got the two approaches. one of them is you can rewardit when he becomes silent. the other is you punishhim when he's barking. i prefer rewardinghim when he shuts up.
yeah, because he's like,hey, there's a treat in it. i'm definitely down to do it. absolutely. so next we actually havesomeone coming in, live. we have cisco from berkeley. cisco, are you there? hey, cisco. how's it going, man? oh, sorry.
can you hear me? yes. yeah. cool. hi nick. i have a question. i have a mini schnauzer. his name is scruff. and he get really rowdy wheni introduce him to other dogs,
because he thinks he's abig schnauzer or something. how do i make himnicer to other dogs? because he's a total sweetheartto me, and to people he knows. but when it comes tohanging with other dogs, he gets kind of crazy. is it all other dogs, or justa certain type of other dog? well, there's one dog--my neighbor's dog-- who he's good friends with. but all other dogsat the park and what
not he just doesnot want anything to do with any of them. so when it's verybroad like that, it's what we wouldcall fear aggression. so something has happenedto him earlier in his life. and it may be lackof socialization. and i'm not blaming you. i'm saying this wouldhave probably happened at the breeder's.
it could happen in-- thesocialization period was originally described asthe first 10 weeks of life. people now extend itto be the [inaudible]. so the first threemonths of life-- if he wasn't actively--wrong word, but aggressively socialized, thatwould be a problem. or he could have had badexperiences at the hands or at the paws of other dogs. and in that case, he ends upby being a canine misanthrope.
he doesn't trust them. and being a schnauzer, beinga terrier-type personality, he's not about to standthere and take it. so he takes the offense. for him, a good offenseis the best defense. but it's really a defensivetype of aggression that he's being proactive. so the way you fix itis a couple things. number one, if he getstons of exercise--
he's a high energy dog. he needs to probably run hislegs off for an hour or two a day, doing funstuff, off leash. number two, you can sometimesmake some dent on it by feeding a lower protein diet. not lower than a dog needs, butin the spectrum of normality, say for a dry food,around 18% protein. not 30% plus protein fora dog with that issue. it wouldn't matter if yourdog didn't have an issue.
but if the dog hasan issue like that, you can sometimesturn it down a bit. but then comesthe master stroke. there's a head halter. so if you use ahead halter on him, you can demonstrateto him, in a language he will understand-- becausehe wouldn't understand if you tried to tell him stuff. he doesn't get it.
you can't write him a letter. every little dog like him--they think they're a big dog. they've got a whole dog brain. but you can communicatewith him with a head halter. my favorite brand isthe gentle leader. so it's basically a high-ridingneck color around his neck. it rides high up, behindthat little bony bump on the back of his skull. and it's got the nose band.
and when he walks up toanother dog, first of all you wouldn't stick him rightin the other dog's face. but he sees another dog and hestarts to act out a little bit, you just apply verygentle upper tension, which puts pressureover the muzzle, which is how mummy dog wouldcommunicate with her babies to say stop it. and then it putspressure on the nape of the neck, which is where themummy dog would grab a puppy
to lift it from place to place. it causes relaxation. you just thetension on, until he does what you want him todo, release the tension, and praise him. and we do this threetimes a week, maybe more. and we see dogs change frombeing feisty and aggressive to other dogs intobeing totally malleable. the control youget is immediate.
the learning, on his part,could take two or four months. and there would probablyalways be some bad offenders who he had an issue with. failing that, andthe only other thing you can do-- and hate tokeep talking about this on this hangout-- but youcan sometimes use medication to get an unfairadvantage, going forward. and there are some things thatwill make him a little bit more confidence, and thereforeless aggressive,
which are pretty harmless. and they don't work by sedating. so there are things inthat direction, too. is this more like a natural--kind of like a nuzzle. something his mom would dowould probably help out a lot. thank you so much, cisco. all right, thank you. bye cisco. and this is from lou.
and they say, my dogdrinks a whole lot of water before he sleeps at night. is that normal? drink a whole bunch of water,he must be really thirsty. well what's reallyimportant is how much water he's drinking per day. so sometimes it can be anissue-- medical problem. so it's not that easy tomeasure how much water a dog drinks in the day.
you've got to close all thetoilet seats, for a start. if you've got more than oneanimal, that's another problem. but if you measurewhat you put out and you measure itin pints or cups, depending on theweight of the dog you take-- welli'm talking metric. but if a dog weighs--average dog-- 45 pounds is 20 kilograms,you multiply by say 60, 20 times 60, and you've gotthe number of milliliters,
we you can convertinto liters, that's how much he shoulddrink per day. there are some thingsthat change it, like if he's veryhot and he's panting, or if he's having dryfood versus wet food. you've got to allowfor the water in that. but if he's drinkingthe right amount, it doesn't reallymatter if he happens to have a big thirst at night.
it's just hisparticular way of being. but it could be the factthat this owner has gone out of their way to comment on thehuge amount-- not just going for a quick sip of waterbut huge, sucking down the whole thing-- itcould be a problem. and it could be-- if he'san older dog, or even a young dong, perhapskidney disease. it could be diabetesof some sort. [inaudible] moreserious than we think.
so there could besomething serious. but it's the totalamount of water per day would decide whetherit was just a quirk or whether it wasa medical issue. so what if a dog doesn'tdrink enough water? i've heard of wayslike sneaking water in food, mixing it with food. they'll drink morewater that way. yeah, there's tricks.
you put some salton his food and make him more thirsty and stuff. but it's good to ask thequestion why, first of all. because youshouldn't really have to convince a dog to drink. he's got part ofhis brain operates to tell him my bloodis too concentrated. i need to drink some water. so i don't know.
maybe they're feeding ahigh-salt food at 7 o'clock at night. and then he gets a wickeddruth, they say in scotland, where i used to come from. a druth is a big thirst. it needs a little bit moreexploration, i'm saying. there's too much of a druth. so we have another question. it's jennifer fromdallas, texas.
and she says, whatshould you do when you come across a territorialdog who is not on a leash. so how do youcontrol your dog when there's anotherfeisty dog nearby? well that can be tricky. so one thingprobably not to do is to run, because he will comeafter you, if he's territorial. fortunately, a lotof the dogs who have issues with territorialityare a bit scared.
and once again, i don't meanto pick on german shepherds. german shepherds, andherding dogs in general, tend to have issueswith territoriality. and if you just turn and facethem and stand your ground, with hands to the side,no yelling, no waving, no nothing-- you couldeven grab a coat, just in case they lunge. if you're wearing acoat, take it off, and it's like something, if theydid jump, they can bite that ,
instead of you. yeah, like bull fighters. you really wantto turn to stone. and actually, i'm notonly the president of the hair club forman, but [inaudible] sufferer, so to speak. but actually thishappened to me. i was jogging. and out came this dog, likea shark, out from a house.
and i saw him come. and i had a feeling hisbeady eyes were on me. and as i was jogging along,i almost felt his presence. so at the last minute,i just spun around and made like a monster, andjust stood there, like this. and he went wee, wee, wee,and ran all the way home. well, what happenswhen you have a dog, and your dog's onthe leash with you, but you don't knowhow your dog's
going to react to the otherdog that's not on a leash. do you pick them up, if it'sa smaller dog, or how do you? well this isirresponsible people who have a dog who might beaggressive, who is territorial, who's off leash, and there'sleash laws everywhere, and you're walking along. it's very difficult to do. there is a thing you can buy toprotect yourself and your dog. and it's called direct stop.
and it's a citronella spray. and it shoots out. it's a bit like a mace spray. so if you really have your backagainst the wall, so to speak, and there's an off-leashdog encroaching on you and yourdog, you can always try spraying him in theface with citronella. it goes about 10 feet. so just something [inaudible]protect would be good.
well, next we have johno. from san francisco, who has a question for you. john o., are you there? hi, can you guys hear me? i can hear you. hi, john. i was wondering-- i havea cat and a dog at home. and i was wondering,what are your thoughts on me feeding them raw meat?
well, i'll tell you thatthe endpoint of that story is that in our hospital,at tufts university school of veterinary medicine,or tufts cummings school, raw food is banned. we have three nutritionists,one with a phd. all of them have dvms. all of them are boardcertified in nutrition. and they actually explain themyths associated with feed a raw diet-- that ththey can handle it,
because their stomachacid is stronger-- wrong. they have a shortergastrointestinal tract-- wrong. they're carnivores-- wrong. meat is safe whenit's frozen-- wrong. they just go throughthis whole list. i hand it out clients sometimes. wrong, wrong, wrong. one of the reasons theydon't allow us to feed it is because it's not onlypotentially bad for the dog,
but it's very bad forthe people handling it. it's like handling rawchicken or something. if you went-- 50% of all thechicken in the supermarket is contaminated with eithersalmonella or campylobacter. if you startedeating raw chicken, you'd pretty soon get sick. i'm afraid i didpoison one of my kids once, when i didn't cook thechicken properly on the grill. and your dog is justrunning the gauntlet.
and the thing is, theymay go for several years and just it's like russianroulette, being ok. and then suddenly they get sick. or maybe you're justnot even realizing it. your dog has diarrhea or,quote, sensitive stomach, every so often. so raw food really--according to nutritionists, which i am not. but i listen to people--not people who don't know.
i listen to people who do know. and for me, if youhave a dvm, a phd, and you're boardcertified in nutrition, and you've researchedthe subject, and you're a fullprofessor, it's probably betterto listen to them than the breeder orthe guy next door. so they're not like theirrelatives, the wolves, or anything.
they can't eat raw food. that's really interesting. well wolves are adifferent kettle of fish. first of all, theyare carnivores. dogs have evolvedwith us as omnivores. and in fact, they did astudy into the difference between wolves and dogs andwhat is the genetic difference. there's only onedifference that emerged, in a study done just down theroad here at broad institute,
and that is dogs have genesthat allow them to metabolize carbohydrates, whichwolves don't have. so that as they've evolvedwith us, it's the same as us. they've evolved to be ableto handle grains and carbos. so they don't just eat meat. they need a balanced diet. ok, well thank you so much,john o. for your question. thanks, john. all right, so--
[inaudible] so we have actuallyreached the point where we're going to announcethe winner of this whole bag of doggy awesomeness. and the winner-- was it me? did i win? well, maybe. [inaudible] if you want.
ok, so we have a drumroll of who the winner is. i don't know if you can hear it. but the winner isgoing to be hugo2dog. so hugo2dog, whereveryou are, please email email@example.com we will send you your prize with your address. and in here wehave-- ok, so this is a chuck it,which is a thing you can do to have yourdog fetch and not
have to touch the grossball and everything. it's really awesome. i know dogs get reallyexcited about that. so many things. we have-- what elsedo we have here? we have a bone, which islike a tree branch bone. and we have lots of toysand lots of awesome stuff. so please firstname.lastname@example.org to redeem your prize.
ok, and thank you somuch, nicholas dodman. it was wonderfulspeaking with you. and thank you for answeringall these questions about dogs, from feces eating to lights ,and just basically making dogs well behaved in general. it's actually a lot moresimple than you think, if you get in themind of the dog. thanks, kendall. also, make sure you watchdog tv, which is actually
a channel wheredogs can watch tv. and subscribe to animalist,if you haven't already. and you can alsofollow us on @animalist on twitter andinstagram, and like animalist network on facebook. so thank you so much, everyone. it was wonderful talking to you.